Diaphragm walls are used for :
- Major urban excavations in ground conditions with aquifers.
- Underground reservoirs or access shafts to deep sewers.
- Open or below ground trenches: highways, railways, Tunnels.
- Deep, load-bearing foundations.
- Linear X or H-shapped supporting walls to reduce high loads.
- Retaining walls.
Main plant used:
- Cable-operated grab (mounted on standard or hydraulic crane)
- Hydraulic grab with Kelly (guides and equipped with incline-meter controlling verticality)
- Hydraulic cutter (used in hardened ground)